Monday, March 28, 2011

Evaluation in my opinion

I think that this is an important journey that David Livingstone explored the interior of Africa, as that really did expand a lot of the knowledge of the Europeans at that time and I think it have deeply change things in Europe as well, as you can see from my posts on the short and long term effects of his exploration. It have benefit a lot on both England and the Africans, as the Africans have been more civilised, introduced to Christianity and educated by the British and other European people. While England later colonize their land and earn money by taking their precious resources. In my opinion, this journey is really important to not only England and Africa but to the whole human history, as if David Livingstone didn't found the interior of Africa, we don't know how many years will it take until another explorer would find out about this place, and it would have also change greatly to the human history. Even though he might not be as successful as he did not discovered River Nile, but in my opinion, I think his discoveries was already really successful.

Problems and Solutions

David Livingstone was one of the first Western people to make a transcontinental journey across Africa, since Africa is a really dangerous place and full of difficulties. European explorers have many attempts in trying to reach the interior of Africa especially explorers from Kingdom of Portugal, but they all failed since in Africa, it is easy to get malaria, sleeping sickness, dysentery and different diseases. Beside, in Africa there are many really powerful tribes and chiefs, such as Lozi, Lunda and Mwata Kazembe. These powerful tribes have killed many of the explorers before David Livingstone. He faces all of these challenges that other explorers faced too, but he solved them by traveling much lighter then other explorers. He travelled lightly to show the tribes and chiefs and to reassure them that he was not a threat, as other explorers brought dozens of soldiers armed with rifles and other weapons, which were seen as military invasion by the tribes so they killed the explorers and their soldiers. But David Livingstone only brought with him a few servants and porters, bartering for supplies along the way, with only a couple gun for protection. He have also preached Christian messages to the natives, but he no force to preach to the people that were unwilling to listen. He have understood the ways of how to communicate the the local chiefs and he have successfully negotiated a passage through their territory, and the natives gave them help including medical help so that they can prevent some deadly diseases as mention above.

Long term effects

He had made geographical discoveries and had expanded all of the European's knowledge. He inspired people that want to end the slave trade, explorers and missionaries. He opened up the whole Central Africa to missionaries who initiated the education and health care for Africans, and trade by the African Lake Company. His name helped the relations between them and the BritishAs a result, within fifty years of his death, colonial rule was established in Africa and white people began to mover towards the interior of Africa. On the other hand, within a further fifty years after that, he also helped end the colonial era in Africa in a peaceful way. David Livingstone was part of an Christian movement in Britain which during the 19th century changed the national mindset from the idea of the British people to rule 'lesser races', to ethical ideas in foreign policy which, with other factors, contributed to the end of the British Empire. Africans educated in mission schools founded by people inspired by David Livingstone also helped people in Africa to learnt and understand about the outside World. It also make quite a big impact to the environment, as before, Africa was full of lakes and forests, but as the people began more civilised and white people start to move in, they start to build many buildings which destroy the nature world.

Short Term Effects

For short term effects, in economically, David Livingstone and England can earn money by taking the goods including gold, silver, precious stones and other resources, they could be sold and both himself and his country Kingdom of England can get many money from his discoveries. For short term social and cultural effect, immediately, David Livingstone will understand more of how to communicate with the natives in the interior of Africa, and the natives will start to understand the language of what David Livingstone is speaking, English. Beside, David Livingstone will start to learn how they live without any technologies by just relying on the nature, and he can bring these knowledge back to England and teaches those people. In environmentally, there isn't much short term effect as David Livingstone didn't much ruin or change much to the environment, he didn't wen there and cut down trees or to build buildings and ruining the nature world. And in short term political effects, David Livingstone can start introducing Christianity to the native people and civilise them in order to start building some formal political relationships with them.

What did David Livingstone discovered?

David Livingstone found many different places during his journey, his most famous discovery was the Victoria Fall, which was a great waterfall which the native people called it "Mosi-oa-Tunya" which means "the smoke that thunders", he named it victoria Fall from Queen Victoria of England. He also discovered many geographical features, including Lake Ngami, Lake Malawi and Lake Bangwelulu. He was also introduced into many different tribes and villages, as he discovered many different native cultures including Angola and Makololo. He also discovered ways to communicate and get along with the native people, telling and showing them that he's not a threat and he travelled peacefully along his journey. He also filled in the details of LAke Tanganyyika, Lake Mweru and the course of many rievers. But, the furthest north he reached was the north end of Lake Tanganyika, which was still the south of the Equator, so he did not went through the River Congo and any further north.


Here's a map showing the whole two journeys of David Livingstone exploration, starting from South Africa into the interior and northern part of Africa.

Why did David Livingstone explore?

David Livingstone explored Africa as a missionary and a doctor. He explore for mainly three reasons, the three C's. His motto during his exploration was "Christianity, Commerce, Civilisation." And these were his three main reasons for exploring the interior of Africa. For the first C, Christianity, during his speech made in Cambridge in 1857, he said that he want to explore “country south of the desert” was to “instruct the natives in a knowledge of Christianity”. He said “country south of the desert”, meaning south of the Sahara Desert, including Angola and Zambia in present days. David Livingstone was a Christian when he was small, since his parents were also Christians too, and he is a really religious person, and he preached to the people in Africa. By introducing the natives about Christianity and the Gospel, David Livingstone then wanted to civilize them. At those days, the British people see themselves as a high civilisation, with Christianity adding in their civilized culture. In civilising these natives through Christianity, David Livingstone will be able to create formal relations with them. These relationships can bring opportunities between these natives and England.
David Livingstone hope to trade goods between England and Africa, getting some precious resources from their and giving the people in Africa help including in medical, educational etc. These can also bring money to England, making them a richer and stronger Kingdom.